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In recent years, apricots are increasingly grown in the suburbs and neighboring regions. Apricot cultivation in the Moscow region is fraught with some difficulties that are caused by the botanical characteristics of the plant itself and the soil and climatic conditions of the region. In order to choose the right variety and grow a productive planting of fruit trees, it is necessary to determine which varieties are adapted for this area, and get acquainted with the description of the originator and the reviews of gardeners.
The best self-fertile varieties and their description
Self-fertile varieties grow very well and develop on the territory of the Moscow Region, the seedlings of which are sold by nurseries and crop enterprises in the region of the proposed cultivation. The most popular are the earliest and most winter-hardy apricot varieties, who manage to give the crop before the onset of a significant cooling, and also do not freeze in frosty winters.
The best apricot varieties very successfully combine a high level of productivity and excellent adaptability to weather conditions in the Moscow region.
|Grade name||Botanical Description||Fruit characterization||Reviews of varietal merits||Reviews of varietal flaws|
|Moscow Perry||Plant growth and crown type depend on the variety characteristics of the parent plant||Medium-sized, yellow, sweet and sour taste, suitable for drying||Increased winter hardiness, varietal apricots are well pollinated||Wild variety grown from the seeds of varietal apricots|
|"Countess"||A vigorous and fast-growing plant with paniculate, sprawling and raised crown of medium density||Mass no more than 25−27 g, yellowish with a blush. The pulp is sweet and tender, with aroma||Universal purpose, excellent taste and appearance, good winter hardiness||Insufficient resistance to lesions by claustosporiosis|
|Moscow||Mid-season variety with high winter hardiness of flower buds||Large, oval, yellow-orange with a slight carmine blush||High winter hardiness and excellent yield||Thin enough skin|
|"Alyosha"||Up to 3.5-4 m high, with a round, slightly spreading dense crown||Medium in size, juicy, orange, weighing 20-22 g, with a very good taste||Winter hardiness and frost resistance are good. Excellent yield||There are practically no disadvantages|
|"Lel"||Moderate growth, medium size, up to 3–3.2 m, with a compact and beautiful crown||Rounded, slightly flattened, orange, without blush and pubescence, weighing 20-22 g||Good winter hardiness and yield. Unripe fruits, universal purpose||Large enough bone|
|"Iceberg"||A low plant with moderate vigor and strongly branched annual shoots||Rounded or oval, oblate, yellow-orange, with pubescence and slight dotted blush||Good winter hardiness and yield. Unripe fruits, universal purpose||There are practically no disadvantages|
|"Favorite"||A plant with moderate growth strength and strongly branched annual shoots, at least 3–3.5 m high||Large, weighing 30–32 g, rounded, with slight pubescence, orange with a bright blush||Good winter hardiness and yield. Unripe fruits, universal purpose||Rather late ripening and average yield|
In recent years, columnar apricots have been very popular with gardeners near Moscow. Their undoubted advantage is high decorativeness and the ability to plant plants with a distance of not more than 1x1 m or 90x90 cm. Apricot trees propagate in several ways, but the most common methods are growing from seed, cuttings and budding.
Apricots for Moscow region: harvesting
Planting apricot seedlings is carried out spring. However, you can plant apricots in the suburbs from the seed. A fruit plant grown in this way grows very well, in addition, it has such advantages as winter hardiness and decent yield. The main recommendations for growing fruit tree from seed are as follows:
- seeds should be taken from fruits that grow in the region of the proposed fruit tree cultivation;
- in order to obtain a quality bone, it is necessary to choose exclusively healthy and as ripe fruits;
- Before planting, the extracted bone must be soaked for about a day in containers with water at room temperature;
- soaked bones must be placed in a well-moistened, previously prepared nutrient substrate, which includes sawdust, moss and sand;
- the process of stratification of apricot kernel in the substrate should be carried out for a month, periodically inspecting the planting material for cracking.
Cracked apricot kernels are ready for planting in a permanent place. The landing area should have good lighting and protection from drafts and gusty winds. The best time for such an event is the spring period, namely the beginning of May. Bones should be planted in holes with a depth of not more than 5.5-7 cm. The standard distance between the holes is at least 15−20 cm. Plantings should be abundantly watered and mulched with organics in the form of humus, rotted wood sawdust or peat chips.
Dates and rules for planting seedlings in spring
Not only the quality of planting material, but also the right timing of planting seedlings affect the survival rate of the plant. As a rule, the timing of planting apricot seedlings depends on weather conditions. The technology for planting young plants is as follows:
- Apricot seedlings are planted in spring from April until the onset of the period of active vegetation of fruit plants;
- planting pits should be prepared since the fall, after deep digging of the soil in the area with the introduction of basic mineral fertilizers;
- the size of a standard planting pit should be approximately 80x80x80 cm or one and a half times the size of the root system of an apricot seedling;
- two buckets of humus or well-ripened compost, as well as 0.5 kg of superphosphate and wood ash should be introduced into the landing pit;
- about one third of the depth should be covered with top dressing, after which a mound of fertile soil mixture is poured.
When planting apricot seedlings grafted on a seed stock, the root neck of the plant should be buried in the planting pit by about 5-6 cm, which will protect young trees from freezing in the winter. After planting, water the plants abundantly with water and mulch the soil in the stem circles with peat or humus. Survival rates largely depend on the implementation of proper care and compliance with the technology of growing fruit stands.
Features of care and trimming
The soil and climatic features of the Moscow Region suggest care taking into account some adverse factors that negatively affect growth, development and fruiting of heat-loving garden culture:
- annual competent pruning, which will allow you to get fruit trees with small-sized and unfilled crowns;
- timely watering, high-quality top dressing, regular weeding, loosening and mulching of the soil are very important;
- systematic collection of damaged and dried fruits, pruning of all diseased branches and their subsequent burning;
- in winter, it is recommended to carry out moderate hilling with snow to a height of up to 50 cm, which will not allow the roots to be warmed up on the basis of the stem.
How to prune apricot
Preventive treatments and protective measures in the spring, which prevent the defeat of fruit stands by the most dangerous and common diseases and pests, cannot be neglected. For this purpose, experts and experienced gardeners recommend the use of copper chloride, preparations "Topaz", "Topsin-M" and "Strobi". In a ready-to-use solution, crushed soap should be added, calculated at 50 g per 10 liters. If it is necessary to protect the plant from pests, Spray, Decis, Intavir are sprayed and the garden is pruned.