Description and characteristics of Boer goats, rules for their maintenance

Description and characteristics of Boer goats, rules for their maintenance

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Boer is an exotic breed of goats. They are thermophilic animals that are bred for meat in southern Africa. They feed on shrubs and grass and gain 100 kilograms of weight in just a few months. It is profitable to breed Boer goats, because they do not require any unusual feed. True, few people are engaged in industrial production. Breeding animals cost about one thousand dollars, goat meat has a specific taste and smell.

Origin story

The Boer breed was bred in southern Africa at the beginning of the 20th century specifically for the sake of obtaining meat. The crossing involved African goats and their relatives from Europe and India. By the beginning of the 80s of the last century, these animals have spread throughout the globe. Countries in Africa, Latin America, as well as the USA, New Zealand, and Australia are considered the leaders in the breeding of Boer goats.

The word "Boer" itself comes from the Dutch "boer", which means "farmer". This breed is known by many European farmers and has been bred for several decades. After all, Boer goats grow quickly, feed mainly on grass and hay, gain weight well, and just 8-18 months after birth they can be sent to the slaughterhouse. On average, one animal gains 60-100 kilograms of weight, that is, it gives 30-50 kilograms of meat. The Boer is the most productive beef breed. Such animals are not bred to obtain milk.

General description and characteristics of the breed

The Boer are distinguished from others by their unique color. This breed has a large white body and a brown head. In height and length, the animal grows up to 1 meter. The weight of an adult goat is 110-130 kilograms, the weight of an adult female is 85-105 kilograms.

Distinctive features of the Boer breed:

  • short, smooth coat;
  • small upright tail;
  • the udder has 2 or 4 teats;
  • short, thick legs with large hooves;
  • the body is stocky, strong, with a wide chest, a round belly;
  • well-developed muscles in the back, chest, hips;
  • horns of medium length, bent back;
  • hanging ears, medium size;
  • powerful head with a convex nasal septum.

The Boer breed has a calm disposition. They are well suited for sharing with other animals. Unlike cows and sheep, Boer goats eat less grass than shrubs and leaves of low-growing trees.

This breed has tender meat, similar to veal. Animals are slaughtered at the age of 8-18 months. During this period, they weigh about 60-100 kilograms. Animals reach sexual maturity at the age of 5 months. True, they try to cover the females a little later. Pregnancy lasts five months. During the first lambing, females give birth to no more than one kid weighing 4 kilograms.

Cubs of the uterus are fed up to 3 months. All the milk goes to him. This breed is rarely milked. A goat gives about 1-2 liters of milk per day. The kid grows quickly, gaining 250-400 grams daily. Young kids are castrated in infancy so that their meat becomes more tender and aromatic. At 4 months of age, the animals weigh 30 kilograms.

Advantages and disadvantages

Pros of breeding a Boer breed:

  • obtaining dietary meat;
  • fast weight gain on one grass and hay;
  • weight of 50-70 kilograms in 8-10 months;
  • slaughter meat yield 54%;
  • excellent adaptability to the climate of the middle zone;
  • undemanding to feed;
  • females can produce offspring 2 times a year;
  • excellent immunity.

Cons of breeding a Boer breed:

  • high cost of breeding animals;
  • to obtain quality meat, goats are needed, which are 75% Boer;
  • poor adaptation to frost;
  • the need to trim hooves twice a year;
  • eat everything in the reach (grass, shrubs, flowers, tree branches).

Maintenance and care requirements

Boer goats are profitable to breed. After all, they grow quickly, gain weight well, and give about 50 kilograms of pure meat in just a year. True, breeding animals are very expensive. Goats need to create the most comfortable conditions so that they do not die, but grow up and give birth to offspring.

For the Boer breed, you need to build a goat's house with an area of ​​4 square meters. meters per animal. In winter, this room must be heated if the air temperature is below 15 degrees Celsius. Infrared lamps are used for heating. In the goat's house, they equip a hood, make windows and doors, install a manger for hay, a drinking bowl for water, a feeder for finely chopped vegetables and grains.

Straw is laid on the floor. The litter is replaced as it gets dirty, that is, every day. It is forbidden to keep goats in damp and mud. Animals can get sick if they sleep on wet, dirty and cold bedding.

Goats are fed 3 times a day, in between feedings they give clean water (a bucket for one individual). In summer, animals can graze in the pasture all day. Only at lunchtime and in the heat are they driven into the goat's house for several hours. In rainy weather, animals cannot be taken out to pasture. In winter, Boer goats are kept indoors. They go outside only in spring, when the air temperature reaches 15 degrees Celsius, and green grass appears on the meadow.

Boer goats need to trim their hooves 2 times a year, because they grow strongly if the animals are kept in a stall in a stationary state all winter. To handle this part of the limbs, you need special scissors or secateurs. The hooves are trimmed for the first time before wintering, the second time - in the spring, before going out to the pasture. In the summer they grind down on their own.

How to feed Boer goats

Animals of this breed must be fed with quality food. In summer, goats are grazed in the pasture. Animals recover well if they eat clover, alfalfa, grasses and legumes. You need to put a salt lick in the goat's rue so that the goats replenish the salt reserves in the body. Animals willingly eat low berry bushes and eat branches, leaves of trees (willow, linden, aspen, maple).

Expert opinion

Zarechny Maxim Valerievich

Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.

In the summer they are given beet tops, nettles, corn stalks. One goat eats about 5-8 kilograms of grass per day. In between feedings, the animal should be given at least a bucket of clean water.

In winter, they are fed with sun-dried hay (4-5 kilograms per day). As a vitamin supplement, pine and spruce branches are given. The diet should contain finely chopped vegetables (carrots, beets, pumpkin). In winter, goats are given premixes, pharmacy vitamins and minerals.

Animals gain weight well if they are fed with legumes, a small amount of grain, sweet vegetables, silage, bran, and compound feed. Bone meal and chalk are added to the feed. For the winter, it is recommended to prepare 500 kilograms of hay (per individual).

Breeding nuances

To breed the Boer breed, you need to have at least one pedigree goat in the herd. For the highest quality hybrid, Nubian goats are suitable. For crossing, it is allowed to use females of the following breeds: Kiko, Angora, Spanish, Jamnapari. The resulting offspring must be crossed again with a purebred Boer goat. It is forbidden to allow closely related animals to mate.

They try to cover the females in the fall so that they give birth to the kids in early spring. The mating is carried out when the goats are 12 months old. True, they reach sexual maturity six months after birth. Pregnancy lasts 5 months. The mothers feed the kids with milk for 90 days. You can milk the goat 3 weeks after the birth of the cub. A small amount of milk is taken, the rest is left to the kid. For the first time, a goat gives birth to one cub. During the year, the female can become pregnant twice. The second time she has 1-2 kids.

Disease protection

Goats at the age of 3-4 months must be vaccinated. Animals are vaccinated against rabies, brucellosis, anthrax, parasites, foot and mouth disease. If necessary, they are vaccinated against tetanus and enterotoxemia. In areas with a high risk of contracting encephalitis, animals can be vaccinated against the disease.

Important! It is recommended to check the nuances of vaccination with your local veterinarian. Only healthy kids are allowed to be vaccinated.

Distribution in Russia

Boer goats are bred in the Russian Federation. These animals are best raised in the central and southern regions, that is, in places with a warm climate. Boer goats do not tolerate frosts well, in cold weather they often get sick.

Animals eat mainly grass and hay, which means that the cost of feeding them is minimal. You can buy a breeding kid for 1-2 thousand dollars. In Russia, such animals are bred for decorative and personal purposes, less often for the sake of industrial meat production. The fact is that an adult animal weighs, on average, 100 kilograms. About 50-60 kg of meat is obtained from it. On the market, it costs $ 10-20 per kilogram. For 50 kg of meat, they usually give about $ 500-1,000, that is, almost $ 500-1,000 less than a breeding animal at a young age.

How much is?

Pedigree Boer goats can be bought in South Africa and the USA. Delivery of the animal, taking into account its cost, will cost the buyer 3-8 thousand dollars. You can buy goat sperm for less ($ 50). Local farmers sell these animals for 1-2 thousand dollars.

Watch the video: معز البور. Boer meat goat (October 2022).