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Under the same conditions of keeping and equal feeding, one goat gives no more than 2 liters of milk, and the second - 4-5 liters. Milk yield is a variable indicator, how much milk a goat gives per day, depends on the breed, the age of the animal, the number of births, the anatomical features of the udder, the quality of care and nutrition. A large amount of a valuable product can only be obtained from a mature dairy breed.
At what age does a goat start giving milk?
Do not think that the goat will be the milk supplier all the time since it has an udder. To acquire the status of a milking pet, it must become pregnant. Milk production in the goat udder begins in the first pregnancy. The product produced is enough to feed the kids, but mature dairy goats provide an excess amount of product. The surplus is taken by a person for his needs.
In order for a pet who has become pregnant for the first time after giving birth to begin to give more milk, she is regularly massaged the udder. A young goat will get used to the milking process, it will not stress her, and massage movements will help to avoid stagnation in the udder tissues and, as a result, mastitis.
A goat matures for mating by 5 months of age, but this is too early an age for pregnancy. With a male, a female happens to be 1.5 years old. The kid develops in the womb for 150 days. It turns out that the owner receives the first milk from a 2-year-old pet.
How many liters does a goat give per day on average?
The first week after giving birth, colostrum is formed in the udder - a fatty substance that strengthens the immunity of newborn babies. All colostrum is used to feed the kids. Then, over the course of 2-3 months, the owner gives most of the milk to the growing cubs. If the owner has not transplanted the kids from the mother, then milk for personal needs can be milked only when the offspring reaches 3 months of age and begins to eat according to the standard adult diet.
After the first lambing, the productivity of the goat is small, the daily volume of the product is, on average, 1.5 liters. But high-yielding thoroughbred pets, having given birth for the first time, are able to give 3-4 liters per day. The goat becomes maximally productive after the 3-4th pregnancy.
A pregnant goat cannot be milked before delivery. An exception is the swelling of the udder from excess milk, which causes the animal to experience severe discomfort. In this case, milking becomes an act of helping the suffering pet.
Average statistical indicators of goat milk yield:
- per day - 2-4 liters;
- a week - 14 liters;
- in the spring month - 55 liters;
- in the summer month - 80 liters;
- in a year - 400 liters;
- in a lifetime - 4-5 tons.
The number of milk yields depending on the breed
The most productive Swiss dairy goats (Saanen, Alpine), the average daily amount of product from one individual is 6-8 liters. However, there are a lot of representatives of Swiss breeds, the minimum price for one animal is 20 thousand rubles.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Representatives of meat and wool breeds are not milked, as they give little milk, all of which is used to feed the young.
The record holder for milk yield is the Saanen breed. One individual is capable of producing up to 3 thousand liters per year. The milk yield of domestic thoroughbred goats is more modest: the milk first heifer gives about 3 liters per day, which is less than that of an elite Swiss goat, but more than that of a mature ordinary goat.
Comparative daily and annual productivity of animals of different breeds is shown in the table.
|Breed||Milk per day, l||Average annual productivity, l||Fat content of the product,%|
Volumes depending on age
After the first birth, you should not expect high performance from the goat. The increase in milk yield is gradual, from the first lambing to the next.
Calculation of the amount of milk should be started after 3-4 births, these indicators will reflect the real productivity of a mature individual. If the average daily milk yield of a first-born goat, depending on the breed, ranges from 2 to 4 liters, then after the third pregnancy - from 4 to 8 liters. That is, the difference between milk yield at the beginning and middle of milking age is 50%.
The maximum amount of milk a goat gives up to 5 years of age. Then the animal is milked in moderation for 2-3 years. And after 7-8 years, the volume of milk decreases every month. At this age, meat goats are slaughtered, but dairy animals live up to 12, and some even up to 15 years. With proper care and quality nutrition, lactation can last up to 12 years. Long-livers are considered to be Zaanen pets that live up to 18-20 years.
A decrease in the amount of milk in an elderly pet is associated not only with the aging of the body, but also with a deterioration in the condition of the teeth. The goat cannot properly absorb and chew food, which negatively affects the performance of the mammary glands.
Dates of lactation
The duration of the lactation period is determined by the breed. Record holders should be called Zaanen and Gorky goats, which give the product without loss of quality for 8-9 months. But, on average, pets supply the owner with milk for 6-7 months. These are summer, autumn months and a few days of winter. The goat gives the greatest amount of milk in summer, when it consumes succulent herbal food.
How to increase milk yield?
The main reason for the decline in milk production is poor nutrition. In the summer months, when sending goats to graze, the pasture is carefully chosen. It should be a meadow with high soil moisture, but without signs of waterlogging, where the grass cover is succulent.
There are herbs that can be used to increase milk yield. It:
- horse sorrel;
Goats that use parsley and other herbs in their herbal feed may produce milk with a specific odor. Pregnant and giving birth females are recommended to periodically feast on several walnut kernels, which not only increases the amount of milk, but also makes it more fatty. Clover animals are given a little wilted so that digestion does not deteriorate. Lamb and nettles are placed in the trough in a dried form.
And in winter, it is useful to treat pets with harvested apple, plum, birch, shrub branches to enhance lactation.
Goats that have given birth should not be thirsty, the amount of milk formed depends on the use of water. If there is no natural drinking source on the pasture, then the animals are watered before being released from the barn. And the pets in the barn are watered after they have eaten hay.
Milk quality deteriorates when the goat's body is deficient in minerals. Therefore, pregnant and giving birth females are given nutritional supplements containing a set of minerals necessary for lactation. The veterinarian will tell you which drug to choose. A good and cheap source of minerals is salt stone, which animals lick whenever they want.
Walking in sunny weather is good for pregnant goats. It not only enhances the immunity of unborn kids, but also promotes good milk yield.
On the recommendation of a veterinarian, the first-born goat can receive prebiotics. These drugs strengthen the immune system, help food to be absorbed, due to which the milk yield increases by 20%.
Reasons for the decline in milk yield
When the amount of milk decreases, then one can suspect:
- aging of the animal;
- hypovitaminosis and mineral deficiency;
- poor quality diet;
- deterioration in appetite due to the change of the usual feed for a new one;
- insufficient water intake;
- fright, being in a stressful state;
- the development of an internal disease;
- stress from a change of owner or home;
- entering a state of sexual heat;
- illiterate maintenance, cruelty to animals.
Pregnant and postpartum goats should be kept in a separate room in a comfortable environment. In the winter months, the air temperature in the goat dwelling should not fall below +8 ° C, and in the summer, it should not rise above +20 ° C. The stable where the milking pet is kept should be free of drafts and dirt.
How much milk a goat will give depends on the behavior and attitude of the owner. The animal painfully perceives the lack of care and attention. Milk production decreases significantly when goats are under stress. Therefore, the owner should treat the animals affectionately, not shout at them, not beat them, not frighten them with loud sounds.