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Processing grapes in the spring from diseases and pests is very important, and the future harvest depends on this event. Therefore, spring treatment should be carried out correctly and carefully, with strict observance of the basic requirements.
Appointment and features of spring processing of grapes
As a rule, in early spring, vineyards are cultivated for preventive purposes. Such an event helps to prevent plant damage by numerous diseases and pests. The purpose of spring soil treatment is the timely destruction of all weeds, as well as the preservation of as much moisture as possible in the soil, which will greatly facilitate the aeration of subsoil horizons.
In addition, the spring processing of the vineyard includes the competent breaking out of extra shoots in order to correctly distribute the load on the bush and obtain the most rational ratio between fruitful and fruitless shoots.
When cultivated in regions where vineyards need to be covered for the winter to protect against freezing, spring processing begins with the opening of plants. The main objective of all activities for processing grapes in the spring is to maintain the health of the plant, they also play a role in increasing productivity.
Types of treatments
The complex of spring treatments includes not only measures for the care of grape bushes, but also high-quality tillage of the vineyard.
Spring processing of grapes involves the use of special chemicals that will destroy the activated pests, as well as protect plants from damage throughout the season.
The processing of grape bushes in the spring is also intended to prevent damage to fungal and bacterial diseases. In addition to strong chemicals, agents that are not harmful to plants and animals can be used. Stems, sleeves, as well as grape vines and tree trunks are processed. Thorough spraying of the soil is carried out in trellis rows, pit ram zones and aisles.
Vineyard soil cultivation is a mandatory agrotechnical technique for cultivating crops. The first spring tillage should be done after pruning the bushes, but before the buds open. It is better to perform soil cultivation when its top layer is dry. Loosen the soil with a hoe to a depth of 15 cm. The second spring treatment is carried out in late May, after the mass emergence of weeds.
The number of tillage of the vineyard depends entirely on such indicators as meteorological conditions, physico-chemical properties of the soil and its weediness. In addition, it is necessary to ensure a sufficient supply of oxygen to the root system of the plant. The first spring tillage is desirable to combine with mulching trunks circles peat or compost.
In addition to chemical spraying, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning of grape bushes, which involves the removal of unnecessary, damaged, weakened and frosty shoots. It is recommended to carry out such a procedure before prophylactic spraying of plants.
It is also very important to cut out all dry shoots affected by diseases. In addition, you will need to raise the vine and securing it on supports and trellises. Equally important katarovka or removal of the so-called dew roots, which are located close to the surface of the soil.
How to protect grapes from diseases in the spring
How to process grapes in spring
Spring treatment of bushes involves measures that are aimed at preventing outbreaks of fungal or infectious diseases of shoots. Vineyard processing depends on the characteristics of the variety and indicators of plant resistance to damage by major diseases and pests.
Before processing, it is necessary to determine the type of drug used. Vineyards can be protected with both modern fungicides and very effective insecticides. Spraying grape bushes does not cause absolutely any difficulties, if you know exactly what means and preparations should be used.
Fungicides belong to the category of chemicals that can protect plants from fungal diseases, among which the greatest harm to the vineyard is oidium, mildew, anthracnose and any rot.
|Means||Nature of action||Appointment||Cooking Instructions||The shelf life of the solution|
|Bordeaux mixture||Contact protective||Against mildew||0.3 kg of copper sulphate and 0.5 kg of slaked lime per 10 l of water||Day|
|Azure water||Contact protective||Against mildew||0.1 kg of copper sulfate and 0.3 l of aqueous ammonia per 10 l of water||Day|
|90% s n. “HOM”, “Kuprikol” or “Kupritoks”||Contact protective||Against mildew||40 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Day|
|80% s p. "Tsineb"||Contact protective||Against mildew||40 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Day|
|75% s n. "Polycarbacin"||Contact protective||Against mildew||40 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Day|
|80% s n. "Khometsin" or "Kuprozan"||Contact protective||Against mildew||40 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Day|
|80% s n. "Polikhom"||Contact protective||Against mildew||40 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Day|
|80% s n. "Colloidal sulfur"||Contact protective||Against Oidium||0.1 kg of the drug per 10 liters of water||Day|
|60% Nitrafen paste||Healing, eradicating||Phytopathogenic organisms||0.25 g of paste per 10 liters of water||Shelf life of the drug is 24 months.|
|Iron sulfate||Eradicating||Complex action||0.35 kg of product per 10 liters of water||Is not limited|
|50% s p. "Rovral"||Contact protective||Against oidium and gray rot||17 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Day|
|20% ke Saprol||Therapeutic action||Against oidium and gray rot||10 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Durable|
|50% s n. "Sumylex"||Therapeutic, protective||Against gray rot||10 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Shelf life of the drug is 24 months.|
|50% s n. "Euparen"||Contact protective||Against mildew, oidium, rot||25 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Shelf life of the drug is 24 months.|
|65% Efal||Therapeutic, protective||Against mildew||30 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Shelf life of the drug is 24 months.|
Note: s.p. - wettable powder; ke - concentrated emulsion.
It is extremely important to use quality and modern insecticides in a timely manner. When spraying vineyards from basic diseases, it is allowed to add pest drugs to the working solution.
|Means||Nature of action||Appointment||Cooking Instructions||Toxicity||Shelf life|
|50% Apollo||Contact||Ticks at all stages of development||4.5 ml per 10 l of water||Not dangerous to bees||Shelf life of the drug is 24 months.|
|50% Actellic||Contact intestinal||Leafworms, phylloxera leaf, ticks||1 ml per 10 l of water||Hazard class 2||Day|
|20% Mitak||Contact||Ticks, leaf moth, aphid, moth, moth, moth||22 ml per 10 l of water||Toxic to pollinating insects||Shelf life of the drug is 24 months.|
|50% Neoron||Contact||Ticks||20 ml per 10 l of water||Not dangerous to bees||7 o'clock|
|25% of Aktara||Contact intestinal||Leafworm, aphid, leaf phylloxera||1 g per 10 liters of water||Danger to bees||Shelf life of the drug is 24 months.|
It is quite possible to make less effective, but also effective remedies against the main diseases and plant parasites affecting vineyards on their own.
- From defeat by anthracnosis, true and downy mildew used infusion from a glass of chopped garlic, potassium permanganate, iodized salt (40 g) and laundry soap (40 g), which is used to process the bushes twice a season. All components are diluted in 10 liters of water.
- Against Oidium daily ash infusion is used (half a bucket of ash per half a bucket of water).
- Effective remedy against oidium is the use of infusion of hay dust or old hay. To do this, fill the bucket with hay to the upper mark and pour cold water so that the hay is completely covered with it. It is infused for 3-4 days.
- To combat powdery mildew you can use a solution of potassium permanganate or soda ash (40-50 g per 10 liters of water).
A very effective tool is spraying grape bushes with a solution based on milk or whey. Against rot, it is recommended that the solution be treated with iodine.
We also offer you to learn how to plant grapes in spring.
Schemes and terms of processing
To protect the vine bushes from diseases and pests, it is necessary to carry out processing in strictly defined terms. The basic treatment regimen and preparations recommended for use can be adjusted or supplemented depending on weather factors and the agricultural background.
In addition to the two eradicating treatments with iron sulfate, other treatments should be carried out according to the standard scheme.
|Use phase||Recommended drug|
|After snow||Processing the vine with a solution of iron or copper sulfate|
|Kidney opening period||“Vermitek” or “BI-58” preparations are used against grape ticks|
|The appearance of the third sheet||Ridomil Gold with Tiowit Jet|
|Before flowering||"Ridomil-Gold MC" and "Topaz"|
|After flowering||Quadrice or Strobi|
Grapes are a relatively difficult plant to grow. Proper and timely processing in the spring is the basis for the full development of the vineyard. In spring, grape plantings are processed as a preventive measure. It is recommended to use only the most effective drugs and products that will prevent the plant from being affected by diseases or pests throughout the season.