Peach varieties for central Russia: rules for selection and cultivation

Peach varieties for central Russia: rules for selection and cultivation

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Peach (from the Latin Prunus persica) is a plant from the Pink family and belongs to the subgenus Almonds. Peach varieties for central Russia are presented in a rather limited amount. Nevertheless, there is a choice, and at present interesting and promising zoned varieties that have proven themselves well when grown in conditions far from ideal have been developed.

In order for the fruit plantations to give a stable crop, it is necessary to correctly select the variety, taking into account the soil and climatic conditions of the area.

Criterias of choice

It is not easy to cultivate such a southern and thermophilic culture as peach in central Russia. Varieties suitable for cultivation in the southern regions, in the climatic conditions of the middle zone, take root extremely rarely and most often freeze in the winter. In addition, the fruits on trees of these varieties do not have time to fully ripen in a short summer. It is for these reasons that it is recommended to give preference to zoned peach varieties and plants on winter-hardy stocks. In addition, a good option is to independently obtain seedlings from the seeds from the most strong and winter-hardy varieties.

When choosing a cultivar for cultivation in the middle lane of our country, it is very important to clarify the dates of fruiting of peach. It is preferable to grow the earliest ripe and undersized varieties of this fruit crop. It is advisable to plant at least a couple of peach trees on the site, which will contribute to better pollination of plants.

It should be remembered that regardless of the variety of peach, its cultivation in the middle lane is always associated with strict observance of agricultural technology and the obligatory shelter of fruit trees for the winter period.

The best varieties

As a rule, early ripe or mid-early peach varieties are selected for central Russia. Currently, gardeners are actively cultivating several very early varieties.

Grade namePlantFruitPulpFeatures
"Early Sycheva"Weak, small-leaved, with abundant flowering and fruitingSmall, weighing up to 45 g, rounded, with a small seam, whitish-cream with a blushNo red, whitish creamRelative resistance to leaf curl
"Rossoshanskaya precocious"Vigorous, with a sparse crown, with a high level of resistance to frostWeights up to 75 g, greenish-white with blush, rounded or flat roundGreenish-white, with a blush, dense, sour-sweetRelative resistance to leaf curl
"Kiev early"Medium-sized, with spherical spreading crownLarge, weighing 110 g, light yellow with a striped blushGreenish white, harmonious in tasteSufficient resistance to claustosporiosis and powdery mildew
May FlowerSrednerosly, productive, early fruiting.Medium, weighing up to 85 g, sphericalJuicy and tender, harmonious in tasteDisease and pest resistance

Mid-season varieties are also popular with gardeners and are in demand for cultivation in the middle lane of our country. Such varieties are zoned, promising for personal cultivation, but need quality shelter for the winter period.

Features of growing peaches

Grade namePlantFruitPulpFeatures
"Veteran"Mid-annual, high annual yieldMedium, rounded, weighing up to 115 g, slightly pubescentYellow, fiber, sweetRelative resistance to leaf curls and powdery mildew
SmolenskyFast-growing, medium-sizedMedium, up to 80 g, one-dimensional, greenish-cream with a blushSnow-white, with a stone with red, sweet and sourCurl Resistance
"Fairy tale"Medium-sized, disease-resistant, highly productiveSpherical, yellow-green with a blush, weighing up to 80 gYellowish orange, medium fiberDisease resistant, winter hardy, transportable
"Sunset"Medium-sized, winter-hardy, durableMedium or large, weighing 105 g, orange with a blush, rounded ovalGreenish yellow, with red, sweet, aromaticResistant to leaf curl

Dates and rules of landing

Peach trees are classified as photophilous plants, which at the same time are distinguished by low demands on soil indicators. To obtain a full crop for planting peach seedlings, it is recommended to devote areas represented by well-aerated soils with low acidity.

It is very important to grow peach in areas protected from the wind and maximally illuminated by the sun. The best option is to cultivate peach trees on the south side of any capital structure on a personal plot. Peaches can not be planted where garden crops such as strawberries, any nightshade, and also watermelons previously grew.

Planting peach seedlings in central Russia is recommended in early spring, until the buds are swollen on the plant. When planting in the fall, a significant part of the seedlings does not have time to acclimatize and take root completely, which causes freezing of wood and buds in spring, and can also cause the death of immature plants.

Planting pits should be prepared in advance, enriching the soil on the site with humus in the amount of 7-10 kg, wood ash - 0.35 kg, and also adding mineral fertilizers:

  • nitrogen-containing - 100 g;
  • potash - 100 g;
  • superphosphate - no more than 200 g.

The standard distance between planted trees is about three meters. The site for grafting peach seedlings should be deepened by about 7-10 cm. After planting, abundant watering is carried out with a flow rate of at least 30 liters of water for each plant. It is recommended to treat the planted trees immediately after planting from pathogens and plant parasites. It is advisable to mulch the soil in near-stem circles with humus or cover with organic mulch.

Growing Features

As a rule, caring for planted plants is not difficult for both experienced and novice gardeners. The following set of measures is recommended:

  • especially good and plentiful watering, but without stagnation of water, is necessary for fruit-bearing plants during flowering, as well as at the stage of fruit formation;
  • top dressing of fruit trees should be carried out annually, fertilizing around the entire perimeter of the root system of the plant;
  • at the stage of fruit formation, adult plants should be fed twice a month with potash fertilizers;
  • after watering and rains, it is necessary to loosen the soil in shallow circles shallow, which will prevent the formation of soil crust.

Of great importance is the correct and timely pruning of fruit trees. In the middle zone of our country, for normal development and abundant fruiting, peach trees need to be formed in the form of a bowl or bush. In the spring, no more than five fruit-bearing branches and about three new shoots must be left on fruit trees.

How to prune a peach

In winter, the plant should be bent to the ground and provided with a high-quality, but breathable shelter, which will protect against frost, but will not provoke the shoots to melt. Fulfilling these basic requirements of agricultural technology, and in central Russia you can get a good harvest of delicious southern hearths.